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  HARDWOOD EUROPE:
ELM
 
NAMES: Elm
BOTANICAL NAME: Ulmus glabra Huds.
Ulmus carpinifolia Gled
ORIGIN AND SPREAD: Europe, Norther boarder till 65N; often you find them with Hard Maple, Beech, Ash and Lime trees.
MICROSCOPIC CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES: -----pores of spring wood rowed from 1 up to 3; ---
MACROSCOPIC CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES: Boarder of annual rings and pores of spring wood clearly visible; Sap is yellowish-white; core is chocolate coloured, very decorative, Wood rays have dark mirror/reflection very good to recognize

IMPORTANT TECHNOLOGICAL FEATURES:

Dry density (grams/cbm) 0,44 0,80
Volume shrinking tolerance (in %) 11,8 13,7
Pressure strength (Newton/qm) 33 46 56
Bending strength (Newton/qm) 65 72 110
Tensile strength (Newton/qm) 65 80 210
E-Module 5 900 11 000 16 000

PROCESS AND USE:

Good to stain and varnish, need to dry slow, tends to tear and warp;

Mostly used as sliced veneer for face veneer; special wood for sporting equipment and parts of tools, turning and carving.

Heartwood very durable, not weather-proof.
SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS:  

Approx. 30 Elm kinds are known

The Elm trees are nearly becoming extinct/died out in Europe