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  HARDWOOD EUROPE:
OAK
 
NAMES: Oak Tree
BOTANICAL NAME:   Quercus robur L., Quercus petraea Liebl.
ORIGIN AND SPREAD: Europe till Asia Minor; both oak kinds not existing in Central and Northern Scandinavia, both kinds mostly in hardwood mixed forests.
MACROSCOPIC CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES: Sapwood yellowish-white; heartwood light-brown to yellowish brown, when fresh it could be slightly red, boarder of annual rings, spring-wood pores and wood rays clearly visible; wood rays strikes as a big mirror

IMPORTANT TECHNOLOGICAL FEATURES:

  Dry density (grams/cbm) 0,39 0,65 0,93
Volume shrinking tolerance (in %) 12 15
Pressure strength (Newton/qm) 50 61 90
Bending strength (Newton/qm) 74 80 105
Tensile strength (Newton/qm) 50 90 180
E-Modul 10 000 12 000 13 500

PROCESS AND USE:

Mechanical treatment is highly depending on the width of the annual rings; thin wood is to drill before putting nails and screws; kiln drying moderate; danger of discolouring, tends to tear and warp; when varnishing pores needs to be filled;

Heartwood have a high durability when in water; mostly used as face veneer in the furniture industry; construction wood for hydraulic engineering and shipbuilding; special wood for sleepers and barrels; parquet floors, furniture.
SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS:

Anatomic differences between the two kinds hardly to distinguish, 3 13% of tannin in the core.

Approx. 250 Quercus kinds in Europe are known